Blue Flower

The Patricity of Peter

The setting is the Last Supper. Jesus has just explained how He will be poured out as a sacrifice for man. Jesus illustrates his very life being given for the benefit of those who would receive Him.  In the most beautiful imagery, Jesus describes how He is the Lamb of God given for the very salvation of mankind.

After this discourse, an argument breaks out among the disciples about who would be the leader of the disciples. 

Instead of Jesus plainly stating that Peter is the leader of the disciples, He does something that will shock many who hold to the Roman Catholic Church's teaching of the Patricity of Peter.

Jesus states that gentiles "Lord" themselves over others and claim they are doing it for the benefit of the many.  

Jesus rebukes them all and tells them that His Kingdom is not set up like that.  

Then Jesus confers His Kingdom on ALL of the faithful disciples. 

Did I make this up or is this a protestant invention
to disprove the Patricity of Peter? No.

Luke 22:24-30

24. Also a dispute arose among them as to which of them was considered to be greatest. 
25. Jesus said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. 
26. But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves. 
27. For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves. 
28. You are those who have stood by me in my trials. 
29. And I confer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me, 
30. so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Where on earth did the argument for the Patricity of Peter come from then?

Those church fathers which commented on the topic differed prior to the time of Leo the Great.

Some saw Peter's faith IN the "Rock" upon which the church is built, arguing that is the confession of Jesus as Christ and the Son of God.  

Others prior to Leo the Great took the view that Peter is the literal see of authority.  

Doing a search of the church fathers prior to the time of Leo the Great, I was able to compile the following table delineating the position of each of these church fathers:

Peter's "expression of faith in The Rock (Jesus Christ)" is what the Church is founded upon

Peter "the person" is the rock upon which the Church is founded

John Chrysostom
Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Jerusalem
Hilary of Poitiers
John Cassian


* The following church fathers have commented on the topic in disputed writings. The reference to Peter being the Rock is absent from the shorter version of Ignatius' writing and present in the longer.  The Pseudo-Clementine reference is not considered authentic, thus the name "Pseudo-Clementine".


Why is this such a big deal?  To delineate between the group that claims a superior genealogy back to Peter and the one that doesn't?
Because scripture says it's a big deal:

But avoid foolish controversies and genealogies and arguments and quarrels about the law, because these are unprofitable and useless.  Titus 3:9


Leo the Great

In year 440, Sept. 29 Leo was ordained both priest and bishop of Rome.  With his theory of the Pope as universal Ruler of the Church in virtue of his being the successor of St. Peter, we find the beginnings of the Roman Catholic Church.  His argument from a completely objective standpoint, can be viewed as a bold, grand, and almost original conception.  Additionally it can be viewed as completely unbiblical.


I. The honor of being raised to the episcopate must be referred solely to the Divine Head of the Church.

As often as God's mercy deigns to bring round the day of His gifts to us, there is, dearly-beloved, just and reasonable cause for rejoicing, if only our appointment to the office be referred to the praise of Him who gave it. For though this recognition of God may well be found in all His priests, yet I take it to be peculiarly binding on me, who, regarding my own utter insignificance and the greatness of the office undertaken, ought myself also to utter that exclamation of the Prophet," Lord, I heard Thy speech and was afraid: I considered Thy works and was dismayed." For what is so unwonted and so dismaying as labor to the frail, exaltation to the humble, dignity to the undeserving? And yet we do not despair nor lose heart, because we put our trust not in ourselves but in Him who works in us. And hence also we have sung with harmonious voice the psalm of David, dearly beloved, not in our own praise, but to the glory of Christ the Lord. For it is He of whom it is prophetically written, "Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedeck," that is, not after the order of Aaron, whose priesthood descending along his own line of offspring was a temporal ministry, and ceased with the law of the Old Testament, but after the order of Melchizedeck, in whom was prefigured the eternal High Priest. And no reference is made to his parentage because in him it is understood that He was portrayed, whose generation cannot be declared. And finally, now that the mystery of this Divine priesthood has descended to human agency, it runs not by the line of birth, nor is that which flesh and blood created, chosen, but without regard to the privilege of paternity and succession by inheritance, those men are received by the Church as its rulers whom the Holy Ghost prepares: so that in the people of God's adoption, the whole body of which is priestly and royal, it is not the prerogative of earthly origin which obtains the unction, but the condescension of Divine grace which creates the bishop.

II. From Christ and through S. Peter the priesthood is handed on in perpetuity.

Although, therefore, dearly beloved, we be found both weak and slothful in fulfilling the duties of our office, because, whatever devoted and vigorous action we desire to do, we are hindered by the frailty of our very condition; yet having the unceasing propitiation of the Almighty and perpetual Priest, who being like us and yet equal with the Father, brought down His Godhead even to things human, and raised His Manhood even to things Divine, we worthily and piously rejoice over His dispensation, whereby, though He has delegated the care of His sheep to many shepherds, yet He has not Himself abandoned the guardianship of His beloved flock. And from His overruling and eternal protection we have received the support of the Apostles' aid also, which assuredly does not cease from its operation: and the strength of the foundation, on which the whole superstructure of the Church is reared, is not weakened by the weight of the temple that rests upon it. For the solidity of that faith which was praised in the chief of the Apostles is perpetual: and as that remains which Peter believed in Christ, so that remains which Christ instituted in Peter. For when, as has been read in the Gospel lesson, the Lord had asked the disciples whom they believed Him to be amid the various opinions that were held, and the blessed Peter bad replied, saying, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," the Lord says, "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona, because flesh and flood hath not revealed it to thee, but My Father, which is in heaven. And I say to thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shall loose on earth, shall be loosed also in heaven."

III. S. Peter's work is still carried out by his successors.

The dispensation of Truth therefore abides, and the blessed Peter persevering in the strength of the Rock, which he has received, has not abandoned the helm of the Church, which he undertook. For he was ordained before the rest in such a way that from his being called the Rock, from his being pronounced the Foundation, from his being constituted the Doorkeeper of the kingdom of heaven, from his being set as the Umpire to bind and to loose, whose judgments shall retain their validity in heaven, from all these mystical titles we might know the nature of his association with Christ. And still to-day he more fully and effectually performs what is entrusted to him, and carries out every part of his duty and charge in Him and with Him, through Whom he has been glorified. And so if anything is rightly done and rightly decreed by us, if anything is won from the mercy of God by our daily supplications, it is of his work and merits whose power lives and whose authority prevails in his See. For this, dearly-beloved, was gained by that confession, which, inspired in the Apostle's heart by God the Father, transcended all the uncertainty of human opinions, and was endued with the firmness of a rock, which no assaults could shake. For throughout the Church Peter daily says, "Thou an the Christ, the Son of the living God," and every tongue which confesses the Lord, accepts the instruction his voice conveys. This Faith conquers the devil, and breaks the bonds of his prisoners. It uproots us from this earth and plants us in heaven, and the gates of Hades cannot prevail against it. For with such solidity is it endued by God that the depravity of heretics cannot mar it nor the unbelief of the heathen overcome it.

IV. This festival then is in S. Peter's honor, and the progress of his flock redounds to his glory.

And so, dearly beloved, with reasonable obedience we celebrate to-day's festival by such methods, that in my humble person he may be recognized and honored, in whom abides the care of all the shepherds, together with the charge of the sheep commended to him, and whose dignity is not abated even in so unworthy an heir. And hence the presence of my venerable brothers and fellow-priests, so much desired and valued by me, will be the more sacred and precious, if they will transfer the chief honor of this service in which they have deigned to take part to him whom they know to be not only the patron of this see, but also the primate of all bishops. When therefore we utter our exhortations in your ears, holy brethren, believe that he is speaking whose representative we are: because it is his warning that we give, nothing else but his teaching that we preach, beseeching you to "gird up the loins of your mind," and lead a chaste and sober life in the fear of God, and not to let your mind forget his supremacy and consent to the lusts of the flesh. Short and fleeting are the joys of this world's pleasures which endeavor to turn aside from the path of life those who are called to eternity. The faithful and religious spirit, therefore, must desire the things which are heavenly, and being eager for the Divine promises, lift itself to the love of the incorruptible Good and the hope of the true Light. But be sure, dearly-beloved, that your labor, whereby you resist vices and fight against carnal desires, is pleasing and precious in God's sight, and in God's mercy will profit not only yourselves but me also, because the zealous pastor makes his boast of the progress of the Lord's flock. "For ye are my crown and joy," as the Apostle says; if your faith, which from the beginning of the Gospel has been preached in all the world has continued in love and holiness. For though the whole Church, which is in all the world, ought to abound in all virtues, yet you especially, above all people, it becomes to excel in deeds of piety, because founded as you are on the very citadel of the Apostolic Rock, not only has our Lord Jesus Christ redeemed you in common with all men, but the blessed Apostle Peter has instructed you far beyond all men. Through the same Christ our Lord.

It is most interesting to note that Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria takes a completely opposite view from Leo the Great:

Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria (d. 444 A.D.) wrote: "Now by the word 'rock,' Jesus indicated I think the immovable faith of the disciple." (Commentary on Isaiah IV.2, M.P.G., Vol. 70, Col 940.)


Wait!  What about the scripture  (Matthew 16:18-19 and John 21:15-17) that Leo the Great is referring to supporting his argument?   I refer you to the church fathers above and let you form your own opinion.  However if you do want to see an discussion regarding the position of the church fathers I would encourage you to look here.

To me, the most important referral is back to the Author of our Faith...I refer you back to Jesus words at the Last Supper.  

Scripture is the test of the church fathers...not the other way around.  Scripture is inerrant, fallible man is not.